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Sunday, January 13, 2013

NASA Gravity Probes Prepare to Hit the Moon

http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2012/13dec_grail/ Dec. 13, 2012: A pair of NASA spacecraft that have been studying the Moon's gravitational field are being prepared for a controlled descent into a mountain near the Moon's north pole. Impact is expected at about 2:28 p.m. PST (5:28 p.m. EST) on Monday, Dec. 17. "It is going to be difficult to say goodbye to our little robotic twins," says MIT professor Maria Zuber, principal investigator of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission. "Planetary science has advanced in a major way because of their contributions." This animation shows the final flight path for NASA’s twin GRAIL probes, which will hit the Moon on Dec. 17, 2012, around 2:28 p.m. PST. Play it The two probes, named Ebb and Flow, are being sent purposely into the lunar surface because their low orbit and low fuel levels preclude further scientific operations. Ebb and Flow's successful mission to the Moon has yielded the highest-resolution gravity field map of any celestial body. The map will provide a better understanding not only of the Moon, but also of how Earth and other rocky planets in the solar system formed and evolved. The spacecraft have been flying in formation around the Moon since Jan. 1, 2012. They were named by elementary school students in Bozeman, Mont., who won a contest. These 3-D comparisons depict the unnamed lunar mountain targeted by the NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission for controlled impact of the Ebb and Flow spacecraft. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MIT/GSFC The first probe to reach the Moon, Ebb, also will be the first to go down, at 2:28:40 p.m. PST. Flow will follow Ebb about 20 seconds later. Both spacecraft will hit the surface at 3,760 mph (1.7 kilometers per second). No imagery of the impact is expected because the region will be in shadow at the time. The impact site is located near a crater named Goldschmidt. Ebb and Flow will conduct one final experiment before their mission ends. They will fire their main engines until their propellant tanks are empty to determine precisely the amount of fuel remaining in their tanks. This will help NASA engineers validate fuel consumption computer models to improve predictions of fuel needs for future missions. "Our lunar twins may be in the twilight of their operational lives, but one thing is for sure, they are going down swinging," said GRAIL project manager David Lehman of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. "Even during the last half of their last orbit, we are going to do an engineering experiment that could help future missions operate more efficiently." Because the exact amount of fuel remaining aboard each spacecraft is unknown, mission navigators and engineers designed the depletion burn to allow the probes to descend gradually for several hours and skim the surface of the moon until the elevated terrain of the target mountain gets in their way. The burn that will change the spacecrafts' orbit is scheduled to take place Friday morning, Dec. 14. "Such a unique end-of-mission scenario requires extensive and detailed mission planning and navigation," said Lehman. "We've had our share of challenges during this mission and always come through in flying colors, but nobody I know around here has ever flown into a Moon mountain before. It'll be a first for us, that's for sure." This animation shows the final flight path for NASA’s twin GRAIL probes, which will hit the Moon on Dec. 17, 2012, around 2:28 p.m. PST. Play it The two probes, named Ebb and Flow, are being sent purposely into the lunar surface because their low orbit and low fuel levels preclude further scientific operations. Ebb and Flow's successful mission to the Moon has yielded the highest-resolution gravity field map of any celestial body. The map will provide a better understanding not only of the Moon, but also of how Earth and other rocky planets in the solar system formed and evolved. The spacecraft have been flying in formation around the Moon since Jan. 1, 2012. They were named by elementary school students in Bozeman, Mont., who won a contest. These 3-D comparisons depict the unnamed lunar mountain targeted by the NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission for controlled impact of the Ebb and Flow spacecraft. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MIT/GSFC The first probe to reach the Moon, Ebb, also will be the first to go down, at 2:28:40 p.m. PST. Flow will follow Ebb about 20 seconds later. Both spacecraft will hit the surface at 3,760 mph (1.7 kilometers per second). No imagery of the impact is expected because the region will be in shadow at the time. The impact site is located near a crater named Goldschmidt. Ebb and Flow will conduct one final experiment before their mission ends. They will fire their main engines until their propellant tanks are empty to determine precisely the amount of fuel remaining in their tanks. This will help NASA engineers validate fuel consumption computer models to improve predictions of fuel needs for future missions. "Our lunar twins may be in the twilight of their operational lives, but one thing is for sure, they are going down swinging," said GRAIL project manager David Lehman of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. "Even during the last half of their last orbit, we are going to do an engineering experiment that could help future missions operate more efficiently." Because the exact amount of fuel remaining aboard each spacecraft is unknown, mission navigators and engineers designed the depletion burn to allow the probes to descend gradually for several hours and skim the surface of the moon until the elevated terrain of the target mountain gets in their way.

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Camuflaje OVNI

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En nuestro mundo, una de las facultades que más nos asombra del mundo animal es la llamada mimetismo. Esta es la capacidad de los organismos vivos para pasar inadvertidos para los depredadores. Las variantes son múltiples, desde cambiar el color del pelaje, confundiéndose con su medio, hasta el de adquirir las formas de su entorno, incluso cuando nosotros mismos observamos el comportamiento de animales de nuestro interés, utilizamos el recurso del camuflaje. En la guerra la invisibilidad es una premisa, es por eso que la nación que logre duplicar el camuflaje OVNI obtendrá todas las ventajas sobre su enemigo. Actualmente existen naves invisibles, por lo menos para el radar, como el llamado Stealth Fighter, que por su diseño y pintura especial pasa inadvertido para los radares.

Einstein, en una de sus teorías afirmaba que mediante procesos magnéticos haciendo vibrar un objeto, esté podría desplazar el espectro electromagnético visible que despiden los objetos haciéndolos completamente indistinguibles para el ojo humano. Teoría que se probaría en el tristemente célebre experimento Filadelfia en 1947, con repercusiones bastante lamentables.

Los rayos infrarrojos y ultravioleta están por encima y por debajo, respectivamente, del espectro visible para el ojo humano. Para que una frecuencia infrarroja pueda ser perceptible son necesarios elementos ópticos y tecnológicos de los que carece el ojo humano, sin embargo, un ejemplo claro para poder realizarlo en nuestro hogar, basta colocar un telemando frente a una cámara de video y observarlo en el monitor de televisión.

Esto explicaría cómo aparece y cómo queda registrado en un video un OVNI, cuando al realizar la grabación éste no se observa y ni siquiera es el centro de atención. No obstante, este fenómeno también se produce en negativos fotográficos aun cuando este proceso (óptico químico) es diferente al video. Dando una idea de que si nuestras percepciones físicas no pueden detectar estos avistamientos, sí se cuenta con elementos para poder observarlos.

Otro tipo de camuflaje OVNI (al menos físico y visible), sería el de adoptar las formas del entorno atmosférico, en este caso nubes. Se han registrado avistamientos donde los observadores de estos fenómenos, ven claramente cómo las nubes tienen movimientos caprichosos en el cielo. Estos movimientos por cierto muy semejantes a los observados a través de la historia, donde incluso algunos casos se observan bajar entidades de las mismas.

Por otra parte, la misma maniobrabilidad de algunos OVNI´s hacen que pasen desapercibidos para algunos instrumentos de detección, esto como es de suponerse, sólo es necesario hallarse fuera del campo que cubre un radar, colocándose por encima o por debajo para pasar inadvertido. En medio de estos parámetros explicativos queda otra interrogativa, ¿se pueden ver o fotografiar entidades que se desarrollan en un plano de tres dimensiones? No, no se puede, ya que no obedecen las leyes físicas y ópticas del mismo comportamiento que conocemos, haciendo imposible dejar constancia en una placa o en un video, al menos con la óptica terrestre tal y como la conocemos.

Como se podrá deducir entonces, el hecho de que observemos OVNI´s en el cielo, sólo puede tratarse de un acto consciente de ser observados y enterarnos que allá arriba está sucediendo algo.